Accessing Publication

A letter to the editor can be a powerful outlet for voicing opinion on health issues. Your letter should be 250-500 words in length. The objective of a letter to the editor is to increase understanding of an urgent public health problem, foster a dialogue around a specific issue involving the author and the community, and provide direction for future action on the issue. For this assignment, select a recent public health policy action at the local, state, or federal level. Prepare a response to the policy action in the form of a letter to the editor. Use the “Guidelines for Preparing a Letter to the Editor” resource and the following criteria to prepare your letter to the editor. Consider your audience for the public health problem. Think about news outlets that you would like to write to, instead of writing to your instructor.

policy action

  1. Clearly state your position. Articulate whether you agree or disagree with the chosen policy action (or inaction). Highlight the uniqueness of your opinion so that it is not simply restating the position or opinion in the chosen policy action (or inaction).
  2. Critique the merits of the action. Describe the impact the action will have on health outcomes. Comment on what you would do differently (if you disagree with the action) or highlight why the course of action was appropriate (if you agree with the action). Critique whether the authors have used compelling data to support the action or challenge the action if you disagree. Describe whether the authors have identified criteria to measure the policy action or recommend what you would use as criteria.
  3. Provide recommendations. Propose specific steps that should be taken to strengthen efforts. Offer one or two suggestions, maximum. Avoid statements such as “more funding needed” or “more research needed.”
  4. Use appropriate tone. Use professional language that focuses on the merits of the positions. Do not include language that is disparaging or condescending, or content that is irrelevant to the argument.
  5. Cite references. Include a minimum of three references and no more than five references.

public health content.

You are required to cite to three to five sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Benchmark Information: 

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

Masters of Public Health 
4.3: Advocate for political, social, or economic policies and programs that will improve health in diverse populations.

Changes In Medical Education

Write a 3 page paper that analyzes the changes that have occurred in medical education from the 1800s to today. Compare and contrast the apprenticeship and academic models of medical education and provide examples.


Much has changed in American medicine since the establishment of the first medical school in 1765 at the College of Philadelphia. At that time, physicians had very little professional training, and much of their training was unregulated—as was the treatment they provided to patients. As the medical profession became more established and education became more formal, the rules governing who could practice medicine also became more formal and restricted.

With the formation of the American Medical Association (AMA) in 1876, more medical schools required a four-year degree in order to qualify for medical practice, and the attempt to focus on quality became stronger. However, since many physicians were already from the “old school,” it was difficult to make the necessary changes that might restrict or diminish those educated earlier. Not until outside organizations began to exert pressure to enforce standards in education did improvements in training begin to be seen.

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

· Competency 3: Analyze the development of medical education in the United States.

. Analyze the scope of change in medical education from the 1800s to today.

. Compare and contrast the apprenticeship model and the academic model of medical education.

. Analyze why it is important to understand the history of medicine in order to improve medical education.

· Competency 4: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others.

. Produce writing that conveys understanding of the topic, its context, and its relevance.

. Use academic writing conventions such as APA formatting and citation style, or others as required.

. Produce writing that includes minimal grammar, usage, and mechanical errors, including spelling.


For this assessment, you will analyze the changes that have occurred in medical education from the 1800s to today.

Write a 3 page paper that addresses the following points:

· Analyze the scope of change in medical education from the 1800s to today.

· Compare and contrast the apprenticeship and academic models of medical education.

. How have the two evolved over time?

· Evaluate the importance of understanding the history in order to help improve medical education in the future.

· Provide examples that illustrate your points.

Policing in today’s society

Respond to listed statements in at least 300 words each statement . Do you agree or disagree with the statement?

Statement 1 Policing in today’s society is very difficult. There are expectations from the public that officers are to enforce the law (crime-fight), community police, crime prevention, and be public servants.

Statement 2:    With the stress that comes with being an officer, irregular hours, high intensity calls can lead to fatigue for officers. Fatigue in officers can lead to lapses in discretion or poor decisions for an officer. These intenseness along with many other things can lead people to feel that the police subculture is breaking down.

EDiscovery Governance

introduction about eDiscovery Governance

Research and explain the:

  1. Federal Rules of Evidence,(body 1)
  2. Federal Rules for Civil Procedure, and (body 2)
  3. Sedona Conference. (body 3)
  4. Conclusion (shows how all three relate work together to impact electronic discovery.)

The length should be about five paragraphs: introduction, one paragraph on each topic and a conclusion that shows how all three relate work together to impact electronic discovery.

Graded Elements:

  • APA Format (without abstract);
  • At least five (5) paragraphs total;
  • Introduction / Conclusion paragraphs;
  • One paragraph on each topic;
  • Properly cite references utilized according to current APA standards;
  • Three (3) to five (5) sources required.

Reproductive Function

Instructions: Response must be at least 310 words written in current APA format with at least two academic references cited. References must be within the last five years. Response must extend, correct/refute, or add additional nuance.

Urinary Function:


This patient’s renal injury can be classified as Pre-renal Acute Kidney Injury due to the presented symptoms. He has been with vomiting and diarrhea for 48 hours, and also was not able to tolerate solids of liquid foods. Pre-renal conditions typically do not cause permanent kidney damage (and hence are potentially reversible) unless hypo-perfusion is severe and/or prolonged. Hypo-perfusion of an otherwise functioning kidney leads to enhanced reabsorption of sodium and water, resulting in oliguria (urine output < 500 mL/day) with high urine osmolality and low urine sodium. Pre-renal causes are often apparent clinically. If so, correction of an underlying hemodynamic abnormality should be attempted. For example, in hypovolemia, volume infusion can be tried, in heart failure (HF), diuretics and after load-reducing drugs can be tried. Abatement of AKI confirms a pre-renal cause.

With this patient we can rule out acute intrinsic kidney failure since the patient hasn’t had any direct trauma to the kidneys. Also, any viruses from the burritos he ate, wouldn’t be sufficient to cause toxins overload in the body. We can also eliminate the possibility of ischemia because he lacks of blood in his stools. (Paller, 2020)


There are numerous risks factors that Mr. J.R. could have, some of them are:

-His advanced age, after 65 years, the kidneys start to show deterioration in their structure and function.

-Gastroenteritis: these clinical manifestations, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are usually associated with AKI.

-Dehydration: Having an inadequate fluid intake due to his many symptoms (diarrhea, excessive sweating, vomiting, the inability to tolerate solid or liquid foods), makes him vulnerable to kidney damage.

Chronic Kidney Disease


Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease can have many hematological complications due to different reasons, Healthy kidneys produce a hormone called erythropoietin, or erythropoietin for short. When the body senses low oxygen levels, it tells the kidneys to release erythropoietin. This hormone tells your bone marrow to make more red blood cells. More red blood cells in the bloodstream mean more oxygen can be transported. However, if the kidneys are damaged, they may make little or no erythropoietin. Iron is a mineral found in protein-rich foods that helps make hemoglobin, the protein in the red blood cell that carries oxygen.

A major source of iron is red meat. Because patients in the early stages of kidney disease are advised to reduce the amount of protein they eat, they may not be getting adequate amounts of iron from their diet. The buildup of waste in the bloodstream can also affect red blood cells. Healthy kidneys filter toxins from the bloodstream but kidneys affected with chronic kidney disease are unable to filter as well as they should. Because the body is unable to get rid of this waste, it remains in the bloodstream where it can shorten the lifespan of the existing red blood cells.

Reproductive Function: 


She is probably suffering from Gonorrhea, some supporting symptoms for this diagnosis would be the vaginal discharge that is slightly green, she also presents pain in the lower abdomen and fever. Another supporting signs would be the presence of a Gram negative bacteria of the diplococcal type. (Hill, Masters, & Wachter, 2016)


The microorganism involved would be Neisseria Gonorrhea, the gonococcus, is a non-spore-forming, nonmotile bacterium that appears under the microscope as a Gram-negative coccus occurring in pairs (diplococci) with flattening of the adjacent sides. Gonococci are adapted to growth on mucous membranes and cannot tolerate drying. Their fragility limits their transmissibility to direct contact between mucous membranes or the direct exchange of infected secretions. In women, gonococci may cause asymptomatic or symptomatic endocervical infections, or upper genital tract disease.

Gonococcal infections

Gonococcal infections of women are closely associated with infertility and as a result, females disproportionately suffer the consequences of infection. For both men and women, but more commonly in women, local gonococcal infection can progress to bacteremia with attendant septic arthritis.  In fact, gonococcal arthritis is the most common etiology of arthritis in young people.  When infection involves the eyes, especially in newborns, blindness can result if treatment is not prompt. Rarely, bacteremia results in dissemination to the joints, skin , endocardium or meninges.


There are so many safe and effective single agent regimens that combination regimens, with their increased risk of adverse drug reactions, are unnecessary. For complicated infections, treatment with a higher dose of a single agent (e.g., 1 g instead of 125 mg of ceftriaxone for ophthalmia) or with multiple doses of a single agent (e.g., 4 weeks of therapy with ceftriaxone for endocarditis) is recommended, rather than adding a second antigonococcal agent.

Since Gonorrhea is a bacterial disease that can be treated with antibiotics; with only using a single dose of 250g of ceftriaxone and 1g of azithromycin, it can be cured. We need to let the patient know that her medication can not be shared, and that it is only for her.

gonorrhea infections

Some criteria that could be used to recommend hospitalization for this patient will be based in different aspects: if her symptoms get worse, if she is pregnant, has a tubo-ovarian abscess, is immunocompromised, or is she fails to improve with outpatient treatment.

We need to explain her that importance of receiving treatment, because untreated gonorrhea infections in women may lead to several conditions, including: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): PID can develop from several days to several months after infection with gonorrhea. Left untreated, PID can cause infertility. Chronic menstrual difficulties. Postpartum endometritis: inflammation of the lining of the uterus after childbirth. Miscarriage. Cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder. Mucopurulent cervicitis: characterized by a yellow discharge from the cervix. About 1% of people with gonorrhea may develop disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI), which is sometimes called gonococcal arthritis. DGI occurs when gonorrhea infection spreads to sites other than genitals, such as the blood, skin, heart, or joints.

Medical Abbreviations And Measurements

PART AMedical abbreviations are commonly used in the medical setting. Give 3 examples of abbreviations in healthcare.
Ensure that you explain – How you recognize the abbreviation,  What does the abbreviation mean? Are they Upper Case or Lower Case and how important is upper and lower casing for abbreviations?
 For example “NPO” means nothing to eat or drink” A patient is not to eat or drink anything either for testing or surgeries.
 PART B: Measurements are very important to all Health care workers – Describe two types of measurements used in healthcare.
Ensure that you “Define the measurements and their units ” . What do they mean? How are they used? Why is that type of measurement used?

Public health professionals

Public health professionals are increasingly needed and expected to have a role in advocacy efforts. Imagine you have received an action alert from your local public health association asking you to contact your state senator and urge the lawmaker to support a bill that would set forth time limits to the supply of opioid prescription drugs (i.e., quantity of drug dispensed would not exceed a 30-day supply) to combat the opioid drug overdose epidemic. How would you respond to the action alert? Refer to tips and suggestions provided by the American Public Health Association (APHA) Advocacy for Public Health webpage. What strategy or approach would you implement to ensure effective communication with your state senator on this issue?

advocacy for health equity.

 advocacy for health equity.

Consider the following scenario: Your city council has approved the placement of a toxic waste dump in a small, low-income community. The company building the dump has hosted informational meetings, but residents rarely attend and are unaware of the proposal. The approval will bring very little economic benefit to the community. The CEO of the company feels that since no one attended the meetings, the approval is valid. Do you agree with the CEO’s claim? Why or why not? Consider the principle of social justice and include recommendations for what should have been done prior to the council meeting to ensure that the decision was ethical, fair, and valid. Describe two strategies you would implement to engage this community in advocacy for health equity.

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease

An 83, year old woman is recovering from pneumonia. She has Alzheimer’s disease and has become increasingly hostile and unmanageable in the home setting. Her 65, year old daughter is distraught about the idea of placing her mother in a long term care facility but feels she is not able to care for her.

Part 1:
• The original post must be at least 200 – 300 words in length
• What is your role in this situation?
• How might you help the daughter with her decision?
• What information would you give the daughter?

professional malpractice in a court of law

What elements must be met to show professional malpractice in a court of law?

Why is it important that all elements be shown?

Must address the topic.

• Rationale must be provided.

• May list examples from your own nursing practice.

• 150-word minimum/250-word maximum without the references.

• Minimum of two references (the course textbook must be one of the references) in APA format, must have been published within last 3-5 years.