Explain the “neighbour principle” as stated by Lord Atkin in Donoghue v Stevenson.

Answer ALL questions. Each question carries 10 marks.

1. Explain the “neighbour principle” as stated by Lord Atkin in Donoghue v Stevenson. 

2. In relation to the law of tort, explain the legal term “contributory negligence”.

3. Explain the terms “offer” and “acceptance” in contract.

4. The general rule is that no one can give a better title that he has himself. Discuss this general rule and state the exceptions.

5. Describe the principle of “limited liability” in a limited liability partnership.

6. Describe factors to consider during the planning stage of pre-incorporation of a company.

7. “A promises to pay B RM10,000 at the end of six months, if C, who owes that sum to B, fails to pay it. B promises to grant time to C accordingly”. Advise the lawful consideration of the above.

8. P entered into a 10-year lease of a warehouse. Thereafter, the local authority closed the only street access to the warehouse because of a dangerous building. The street was to be re-opened after the dangerous building was demolished. Discuss whether P could refuse to pay rent and have the contract set aside on the basis of frustration.

9. A, who was a director and secretary of R’s co-operative society, bought land at the price of RM900,000 on behalf of R. A knew that the vendor had earlier paid RM450,000 for it but did not inform R accordingly. It turned out that A had received RM150,000 as benefit from the vendor. Advise R.

10. An offer to contract was made to you by email. You decided to accept that offer and replied by email stating your acceptance. When is the acceptance validly communicated?

Ground To Rescind A Contract.

Ground To Rescind A Contract.

Consider the following hypothetical: Ed contracted with Becky to build a house. Immediately prior to that meeting, Becky was so nervous that she drank an entire bottle of champagne and she does not remember all of the details of the meeting. Shortly before the closing, Ed met with Becky, accused her of fraud and threated to prevent the contract from going to closing. Ed’s associate, a former stunt double for Dwayne “the Rock” Johnson, stood outside the door for two hours to prevent Becky from leaving. Ed gave Becky the choice of signing a new contract promising him more money for the build or going to court. Becky signed the agreement but now has sought legal advice.

Imagine that you are Becky’s attorney. What would you tell her about whether she can rescind the contract? (Big Hint: Capacity to Contract, Duress and Undue Influence)

challenges that come with physical aging

SLO# 2 – Aging

As we age, there are more and more challenges that come with physical aging. This is obvious, well understood, and at the forefront of a person’s mind as they age. What is less understood is the fact that effort should be put into maintaining brain (cognitive) health. Our brains operate much like our physical bodies do in the sense that it needs to be exercised in order to stay strong and healthy.

1. Watch the following video on a company named, “Sharp Brains.”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M4F_GlciZEU (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Here is a link to the Sharp Brains website:


2. Select 2 adults (perhaps a relative, neighbor, co-worker, or a friend) who are in late adulthood (ages 65 and above) .  Ask these 3 questions:

1.  “What do you do to stay young and sharp?”

2.  “Do these activities/techniques help you deal with/prepare for death and dying?”

3.   Given what you know now, is there anything you would do differently?”

3. Describe your interviewees (their ages, relationship to you, work/relationship status) and discuss their responses to each interview question.    (Paragraph 1)

4. Reflect on their responses and the information presented in the video, and answer the following questions:

Do you believe the researchers in the video have found valuable ways to improve one’s cognitive abilities/skills?  What about the advice given by the older persons you interviewed? Do you intend to follow any of the suggestions given by the researchers or your interviewees? Why?  How do you intend to maintain your cognitive health and prepare for death and dying.  (Paragraph 2)

The most cost-effective screening test for determining HIV status

Question 1: The most cost-effective screening test for determining HIV status is which of the following?

Western Blot
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test
Viral load

Question 2: Which blood test is a nonspecific method and most helpful for evaluating the severity. And course of an inflammatory process?

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
White blood cell (WBC) count
Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)
C-reactive protein (CRP)

Question 3: Cocaine acts as a stimulant by blocking the reuptake of which neurotransmitter?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Question 4: Mrs. Thomas was ….. The pain has increased following a day of gardening one week ago. A physical finding that differentiates the diagnosis. And is most consistent with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is:

Ecchymosis, edema, and erythema over the lateral epicondyle
Pain at the elbow with resisted movements at the wrist. And forearm
Inability to supinate. And pronate the arm
Inability to flex or extend the elbow against resistance

Question 5: Which of the following statements concerning the musculoskeletal examination is true?

The uninvolved side should be examined initially. And then compared to the involved side.
The part of the body that is causing the pain should be examined first.
When possible, the pt should not be asked to perform active ROM exercises to avoid causing pain.
Radiographs should always be obtained prior to examination so as not to cause further injury to the pt.

Question 6: Which of the following signs. Or symptoms indicate an inflammatory etiology to musculoskeletal pain?

Decreased CRP
Morning stiffness
Weight gain

Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Discussion: Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

Required materials

1.  Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Note: This text is available at no charge in the Walden Library.

3.  Carlat, D. J. (2017). The psychiatric interview (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Other materials are described as secondary sources

2 pages with References

Nurses as Leaders in Healthcare Reform

Nurses as Leaders in Healthcare Reform

Mercy Ansuaje

Maythee Rodriguez

Yuvislay Clavel

Geanny Garcia

Miami Regional University

NUR4900 – Capstone RN to BSN

Prof. Laritza Varona

November 25, 2021


Nurses as Leaders in Healthcare Reform

Due to disparities, suboptimal outcomes, unsustainable costs, access problems, and fragmentation. Salmond and Echevarria (2017). Explain that the great urgency of change in the role of nurses was influenced by the concerns on disease-type demographics. And the cost and quality issues. There are varying programs led by the Centers for Medicare. And Medicaid Services and the Affordable Care Act to improve quality and cost. These created the need for care coordination and interdisciplinary team to reduce spending, improve outcomes. And improve care especially attributed to adverse drug interactions, multiple prescriptions, repeated diagnostic testing; unnecessary emergency department utilization; and unnecessary hospitalization (Salmond and Echevarria, 2017). Due to these changing health programs, nurses are part of the transformative change which requires a change from patient-centered care, fee-for-service care, provider-based care, and episodic care across a continuum that provides quality, affordable, and seamless care.

Current Issue

The 21st healthcare has transformed, calling for 21st-century nurses to be an agent of change. This was facilitated by the release of The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health in 2010 by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The report provides the role of nurses as a catalyst of change. Besides, the role of nurses’ leaders is evolving and expanding, which thus requires nurse leaders to build their knowledge base on professionalism, leadership, communication, and business skills (Bouchad et al., 2017). The health problems in the 21st century require nurse managers to build the gap between the administration and the clinical by understanding professional and personal development, the business aspect of management, and learning ways to lead with knowledge in human resources and leadership skills.

Nurses are in higher demand due to the increased aging population who are developing chronic diseases. These changes increase the healthcare cost. According to Cutler (2019), nurses reduce healthcare costs as a nurse’s cost is slightly above $1 per minute, that of a physician is $3 per minute, and surgeon costs $6 per minute. Some of the roles of the physicians and surgeons can be performed by nurses hence increasing the need for nurse leaders in healthcare reform. Besides, health institutions with a higher nurse-to-patient ratio have better patient outcomes. Similarly, the increased specialization in nursing places nurses in leadership roles.

Measures to Improve Nurse Leadership

Nurse leadership can be promoted by training nurses on change management to understand how to respond to the changing healthcare system. For example, it is important that nurses understand the economics of accountable care organization (ACO) payment models to help reduce readmissions, monitor specialist care, and meet quality goals. The second measures are the increased specialization in nursing where nurses can choose from. The ongoing reforms require all nurses to be leaders in the reform system’s design, implementation, evaluation, and advocacy. To act as full partners, nurses need leadership competencies and skills to help them operate as full partners with other health professionals.

the Alterations in Cellular Processes.

Post an explanation of the Alterations in Cellular Processes. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
To Prepare
  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  • Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.
  • Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
  • Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.
By Day 3 of Week 1

Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples

Disparity Reduction Plan

work 3.5Create a disparity reduction plan that you could present to both physicians and the hospital administration in your community that focuses on both a specific disparity and demographic(s) affected by that disparity.Using the problem-solving methodology, you will:

  • identify the problem,
  • discuss the population most affected,
  • indicate the root cause of the problem,
  • suggest a possible solution to the problem, and
  • surmise positive outcomes from this solution based on it being used in other areas.

Use data to support your answer. Present your findings to the physicians and hospital admin in the form of a PowerPoint presentation. Your presentation should consist of at least eight slides, not counting the title and references slides.PowerPoint Requirements:

  • All graphics must be clear.
  • All graphics must be cited.
  • Include;
  • at least four photos.
  • at least one graphic.
  • notes so that the information on the slide contains simple bulleted phrasesand the notes expand on those bullets with complete sentences – as if you would use them in an oral presentation to the physicians and hospital administration.

Aging Process

NURS 179 Class Project

This project is designed to help expand your understanding of aging and to share your personal thoughts and feelings regarding the aging process. In this project, you will work independently to answer the following questions regarding the aging process. You will be required to make a powerpoint that displays the answers the questions below. Please include a reference list in APA format. The project will be due 12/7/2021 by 8:00 AM .

1. Share your personal philosophy of aging.

Please include:

a) Your personal definition of aging

b) The hopes, fears, and goals you currently hold regarding personal aging

2. Share 1 current media item (Commercial, poster, advertisement, trailer of a movie or a tv show) that reflects a positive and accurate image of aging. Explain why this is an accurate portrayal of aging using content learned in class (from powerpoint, textbook, etc.)

3. Share with the class 1 current media item that reflect a negative and erroneous image of aging. Explain why this is NOT an accurate portrayal of aging using content learned in class (from powerpoint, textbook, etc.)

4. Pick one specific disease that an older adult may experience. Please include:

A. Definition of the disease

B. Symptoms of the disease

C. Prognosis of the disease

5. Create a nursing care plan to care for a patient with this disease. Please include:

A. 2 Nursing diagnoses

B. 1 expected outcome per nursing diagnosis (2 expected outcomes total)

C. 3 Interventions for each diagnosis (6 interventions total)

D. A rationale for each nursing intervention (6 rationales total)

E. An evaluation for each intervention that demonstrates how you will know that the intervention was effective. (6 evaluations total)

6. Reflect on considerations when caring for an older adult. Please include:

a. Challenges you feel you may face when caring for older adults

b. Strategies to overcome these challenges

Project Components

Points Awarded
Personal philosophy of aging that includes

1. Personal Definition of aging (5)

2. Hopes, fears, and goals regarding aging (5)

1 positive media item that reflects an accurate image of aging. (10)

Explanation of why this is an accurate portrayal of aging using textbook or powerpoint references (5)

1 media item that reflects a negative portrayal of aging. (10)

Explanation of why this is a negative portrayal of aging using textbook or powerpoint references (5)