Function of Digestive Organs

Function of Digestive Organs

The human digestive system supports essential functions of life, often through nutrition to fuel the body systems and the building blocks of the body. It contains a series of various organs across a long tract extending from the mouth to the rectum.


Digestion begins at the mouth with the mechanical breakdown of foods into small chunks known as bolus. The chewing process mixes food with the saliva and marks the onset of the chemical digestion of starch due to the amylase. Its purpose is to moisten the food for lubrication and maximize the surface area to allow the further breakdown of complex food materials into beneficial nutrients required by the body (Welcome, 2019).


After swallowing the bolus, it travels through the esophagus to the stomach, where it mixes and churns bolus with gastric juices. The content consists of a semi-fluid mixture of partly digested food and digestive juices known as chyme. Gastric juices also stimulate the digestion of proteins and the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients (Khan Academy, 2019). Because of the high acidity levels, the stomach is covered with a layer of mucous to protect gastric walls against acidic content.

Small Intestine

The stomach then releases the chyme into the small intestine. Here, the chyme will travel first in the duodenum, then the jejunum, and lastly into the ileum. In the duodenum, pancreatic juices act on fat, carbohydrates, and proteins. Bile from the gall bladder facilitates further breakdown and absorption of fats (Khan Academy, 2019). The movement of food materials in the small intestine is often slower to optimize nutrient digestion and nutrient absorption. This component also contains villi, finger-like projections, which provide a large surface area for nutrient absorption. Major organs that support small intestinal digestion include the pancreas, gallbladder, and liver (Khan Academy, 2019). Pancreatic juices contain bicarbonate content to neutralize gastric acids from within the chyme, thus creating optimal conditions for enzymatic functions.

Large intestine

Once essential nutrients are absorbed, the small intestine release food residuals from the colon or large intestine, further breakdown and absorption of remnant water, vitamins from enteric bacteria, and electrolytes. The large intestine provides transient storage of residuals to allow the accumulation of waste materials before propelling them toward the rectum for elimination as feces (Molnar & Gair, 2015 ). It also secretes mucus to facilitate the passage and elimination of fecal matter.


Peristalsis encompasses sequential and interchanging waves of relaxation and contraction that propel the food along the digestive tract. The waves begin in the esophagus and facilitate the mixing and churning of food content in the stomach. The process is very powerful and automatic, thus ensuring the continuous movement of food along the digestive tract. The motion also includes the movement of enzymatic juices through the ducts (Welcome, 2019). This is evident in the release of bile from the gallbladder into the small intestine.

Bacterial contaminants can fasten peristalsis as the body attempts to expel contaminated content from the stomach. An example of such a disease is irritable bowel movement. Another condition that can slow peristalsis is intestinal obstruction. It develops when a blockage prevents food from passing through the small intestine or colon. A possible reason for the condition might be attributable to the lack of sufficient fiber content in the diet. Constipation can also signify intestinal blockage or slow peristalsis movements. Laxatives are mostly used to quicken the peristalsis and manage or prevent constipation.


Khan Academy. (2019). The digestive system | Crash Course biology| Khan Academy. [YouTube Video].

Molnar, C., & Gair, J. (2015). Concepts of Biology: 1st Canadian Edition. Creative Commons

Welcome, M. O. (2019). Gastrointestinal physiology: development, principles and mechanisms of regulation.

Reply 2

  1. Describe the role of the following organs in processing food:
    • Mouth- The mouth breaks down the food, as stated in the video provided in module 3, the mouth uses saliva, as well as our teeth to break down food. Enzymes and acid help make this process smoother too.
    • Stomach- The stomachs job is to break, and smush everything, using something called gastric juice which is made up of Hydrochloric Acid, Pepsin, Water And Mucus this acid pretty much breaks down any  bacteria on our food that reaches our stomach. The pepsin breaks down protein into amino acids. Our mucus keeps our stomach from digesting itself. The water helps produce chyme so that by the time the food leaves our body it is liquidity.
    • Small intestine- The small intestine is where all absorption and secretion happens also the cellular exchange of nutrients, and breakdown of fats. Capillaries located on the villi help absorb nutrients.
    • Large intestine- The Large Intestines job is to remove most of the water and bio-salts from the chyme so that we don’t have diarrhea. Large Intestine contains Appendix which is known as a safe house for all the good bacteria that we may need to help us digest our food. If we have a virus or food poisoning large intestine helps get all that bad stuff or waste product out. Appendix has a little gut sample that helps our digestive system recolonize basically get back to norma after your illness. Lastly the large intestine reabsorbs excess water from the chyme preparing our poop.

1.) What is peristalsis and how does it help in the digestion of food?

Ans:As stated “Peristalsis is a series of wave-like muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract. … In the large intestine peristalsis helps water from undigested food be absorbed into the blood stream. Then, the remaining waste products are excreted through the rectum and anus” (

2.) Can you think of a disorder or medication that would speed up or slow down peristalsis?

Ans: Diphenoxylate and atropine, these two medications act on intestinal muscles to inhibit peristalsis and slow intestinal motility.

Work Cited

1.) U.S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). Peristalsis – Health Video: Medlineplus medical encyclopedia. MedlinePlus. Retrieved November 2, 2021, from,food%20through%20the%20digestive%20tract.&text=In%20the%20large%20intestine%20peristalsis,through%20the%20rectum%20and%20anus (Links to an external site.).

2.) Mia L Manabat, D. O. (2021, April 3). Intestinal motility disorders medication: Cholinergic agonists, prokinetic agents, opioid reversal agents, antidiarrheals, antibiotics, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, secretagogues. Intestinal Motility Disorders Medication: Cholinergic Agonists, Prokinetic Agents, Opioid Reversal Agents, Antidiarrheals, Antibiotics, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors, Secretagogues. Retrieved November 2, 2021, from (Links to an external site.).

3.) Tatum, J. (2021, July 5). The digestive system” Assignment Ninjas. Retrieved November 2, 2021, from (Links to an external site.).

150 words each

the community educational project.

1. Select your site for the community educational project.

Write a short 250-300 word APA formatted paper (include title page, introduction, headings for the body, and conclusion) on: First discuss what your topic is and why you choose that topic related to your community needs. Second discuss why you selected the specific site for your presentation related to your topic and community needs and note where and when (place, date) your presentation will take place. (If you are still working on solidifying the site, discuss your options and what your plans are to get this solidified to be a good fit for your topic and community needs) In this course, in every module assignment or discussion, due to the nature of the assignments, you are permitted to use first person, such as I, We, Me, Us, etc.


I am choosing the Topic Corona Virus. The site I am choosing is the Hospital that I work at.

Humboldt Park Health. Hispanic community. Dec 3rd. This is the beginning of the project, at the end I will be presenting the topic to my co-workers. I need you from Start to the end of the project. So that you are aware and we are Nsync . We have 7 more topics to cover. From gathering resources, to the presentation. Please, I want a perfect job.


Case Discussion Pulmonary – Part 2 Follow up Visit


The purpose of this assignment is for students to:

1. Improve their ability to formulate diagnoses based on clinical presentation of patients

2. Improve their ability to understand and apply National Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Pulmonary disorders

3. Design a relevant treatment plan

Activity Learning Outcomes

Through this discussion, the student will demonstrate the ability to:

1. Utilize healthcare delivery system resources in a fiscally responsible manner in the diagnosis and treatment of patients and families across the lifespan. (PO 5)

2. Develop management plans based on current scientific evidence and national guidelines. (PO 5)

3. Educate patients on treatment decisions (WO1)

4. Select an evidence-based article to support the plan of care for the case study patient. (WO2)

5. Analyze national guidelines and apply them to specific case study situations. (WO3)

6. Review appropriate antibiotic prescribing guidelines. (WO4)

corticosteroid inhaler


Michelle continues to work in the bakery and her asthma has been well controlled on a low-dose inhaled corticosteroid inhaler, Singular 10mg daily, and Albuterol prn which she uses 1-2 times per week. Michelle presents to the clinic with an acute illness that developed 2 days ago and has a respiratory rate of 24, mild SOB with exertion, O2 saturation of 94%, and complaint of inspiratory and expiratory wheezing. She is able to speak and states her temperature over the last 2 days has been 101 to 102 F.

Cough is productive of white sputum. Influenza A is going around the bakery. Exam findings show a woman who appears her stated age and is alert and oriented and though calm, is having mild work of breathing. AR 110 BPM, BP is 150/85, RR: 24, Temp 101.4. She has a nonproductive, dry cough, is mildly short of breath, fair chest expansion, + inspiratory/expiratory wheezes, no rales, no rhonchi. Auscultation reveals no thrills, gallops or extra heart sounds. Apical rate is elevated at 110. Physical exam is otherwise unremarkable. The MA has swabbed her for Influenza A- test is positive.

Discussion Questions Part Two:

1. Determine appropriate treatment plan for Michelle. Discuss medications, doses, Durable Medical Equipment, and any testing, and apply these directly to her case. Provide your rationale with evidence.

2. Decide whether she is safe to return home, include any prescriptions, or if a referral to a higher level of care is required. Discuss the criteria used to make your decision, how a referral is made and defend your position.

3. Discuss relevant education and follow up plan.

Anxiety Disorder/Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

TOPIC: Anxiety Disorder/Obsessive Compulsive Disorder


Course Competency

Assemble nursing care interventions for clients with behavioral or cognitive disorders.



Lauren has been diagnosed with Social Anxiety Disorder and experiences obsessive thoughts that result in compulsive behaviors. This has a major impact on her life and day to day functioning.



View the videos segments 1, 2, and 3 for Lauren.


Notice how the nurse continues to gather information to assess the extent of Lauren’s illness. The content relates to the objective that you will be able to describe the symptoms of anxiety and OCD.

Segment 1-search it

Segment 2-dearch it

Segment 3– search it


Create a document which contains this information:

· Describe at least three clinical signs of Anxiety observed in the videos.

· Describe at least three Obsessive-Compulsive behaviors observed in the videos.

· Explain at least three therapeutic communication techniques used by the nurse in the videos.

· Discuss at least two nursing interventions appropriate for Lauren. Support your choices with rationales.

· Support your ideas with at least FOUR credible resources.

Children’s Health Fund And National Breast Cancer Coalition

1) Minimum 4 slides with speaker notes and 4 full pages (Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs per part)


Part 1: minimum 4 Slides with speaker notes

Part 2: minimum 4 full pages


Submit 1 document per part


2)¨******APA norms- PPP

Don’t use images.

Use the speaker note briefly to provide substantial and objective information

Do not repeat the same information on slides in speaker notes

You should include speaker notes on all slides that expand and deepen the information. Therefore the information must be relevant and complementary.

All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraph

Bulleted responses are not accepted

Don’t write in the first person

Don’t copy and paste the questions.

All paragraphs must be answered objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer them when you start the paragraph

Use the speaker note briefly to provide substantial and objective information


2)¨******APA norms- Memo

All paragraphs must be narrative and cited in the text- each paragraph

Bulleted responses are not accepted

Don’t write in the first person

Don’t copy and paste the questions.

Answer the question objectively, do not make introductions to your answers, answer it when you start the paragraph



Submit 1 document per part


3)****************************** It will be verified by Turnitin (Identify the percentage of exact match of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)

********************************It will be verified by SafeAssign (Identify the percentage of similarity of writing with any other resource on the internet and academic sources, including universities and data banks)


4) Minimum 4 references per part not older than 5 years (Journals, books) (No websites)


5) Identify your answer with the numbers, according to the question.


Q 1. Nursing is XXXXX

Q 2. Health is XXXX


6) You must name the files according to the part you are answering:


Part 1, 2.doc



Part 1: Children’s Health Fund PPP


1. What is their legislative agenda (2 slides)

2. How is the agenda developed (2 slides)


Part 2: National Breast Cancer Coalition- Memo


1. Describe 3 learning objectives about the memo

2. Make an introduction about the topic

4. Investigate the group’s key issues

5. The group’s mission

6. Legislative agenda

7. Mechanisms used to engage/attract and influence policy makers

8. Current lobbying efforts

9. Key partner coalitions

10. Do their partnerships influence policies at the local, state or national level: key obstacles

11. Spending allocations (consult the Center for Responsible Politics,

12. Conclusion


Qualitative research designs

Instructions: Response must be at least 310 words written in current APA format with at least two academic references cited. References must be within the last five years. Response must extend, correct/refute, or add additional nuance.

Qualitative research designs are used in nursing research studies depending on the methodology used in the study, including methods for participation, such as focus groups. In-depth interviews (telephone or face-to-face interviews), observations. The main reason for using qualitative research design is to generate richly and detailed understanding of the specific issue, topic or establish the meaning of a particular phenomenon using first-hand experiences from the study participants. However, the methods used for collecting data are sometimes time-consuming instead of quantitative research designs (Stenfors et al., 2020). Qualitative research designs seek to establish answers to the hows and whys of a particular phenomenon, issue, or topic in question. Therefore, qualitative research designs are termed subjective studies since the findings from the study are presented in written formats rather than numerical formats as used in quantitative studies.

Besides, the data generated from nursing studies that use qualitative research designs cannot be analyzed using quantifiable statistical techniques due to the absence of commonness from varieties of collected findings. However, a coding process is usually implemented following the identification of common categories during the analysis of the data generated in the nursing study (Stenfors et al., 2020). This direction usually steers the researchers to model the respondents of the study to a particular direction to expand and retrieve detailed information on specific points that they want to major on, especially during interviews or focus group responses, or participants observations on particular actions carried out (Levitt et al., 2021). The following approaches are used with qualitative research designs: Grounded theory, ethnography, action research, phenomenological research, and narrative research.



Question 1

A 6-month-old female presents with rhinorrhea, cough, poor feeding, lethargy, and fever. She is diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Which of the following will the nurse most likely observe on the culture report?

a. parainfluenza virus
b. haemophilus B influenzae
c. respiratory syncytial virus
d. group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus

Question 2

A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. When a staff member asks why the patient’s airways are obstructed, how should the nurse respond? The airways are obstructed because of:

a. Loss of elastic recoil
b. Airway edema
c. Infection and inflammation
d. Excessive mucus production

Question 3

A 25-year-old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months’ duration. When obtaining the patient’s history, which of the following findings is most likely to cause this condition?

a. chronic asthma
b. air pollution

Recommending an Evidence-Based Practice Change

Assignment: Evidence-Based Project, Part 4: Recommending an Evidence-Based Practice Change

The collection of evidence is an activity that occurs with an endgame in mind. For example, law enforcement professionals collect evidence to support a decision to charge those accused of criminal activity. Similarly, evidence-based healthcare practitioners collect evidence to support decisions in pursuit of specific healthcare outcomes.

In this Assignment, you will identify an issue or opportunity for change within your healthcare organization and propose an idea for a change in practice supported by an EBP approach.

To Prepare:

  • Reflect      on the four peer-reviewed articles you critically appraised in Module 4,      related to your clinical topic of interest and PICOT.
  • Reflect      on your current healthcare organization and think about potential      opportunities for evidence-based change, using your topic of interest and      PICOT as the basis for your reflection.
  • Consider      the best method of disseminating the results of your presentation to an      audience.

The Assignment: (Evidence-Based Project)

Part 4: Recommending an Evidence-Based Practice Change

Create an 8- to 9-slide narrated PowerPoint presentation in which you do the following:

  • Briefly      describe your healthcare organization, including its culture and readiness      for change. (You may opt to keep various elements of this anonymous, such      as your company name.)
  • Describe      the current problem or opportunity for change. Include in this description      the circumstances surrounding the need for change, the scope of the issue,      the stakeholders involved, and the risks associated with change      implementation in general.
  • Propose      an evidence-based idea for a change in practice using an EBP approach to      decision making. Note that you may find further research needs to be      conducted if sufficient evidence is not discovered.
  • Describe      your plan for knowledge transfer of this change, including knowledge      creation, dissemination, and organizational adoption and implementation.
  • Explain      how you would disseminate the results of your project to an audience.      Provide a rationale for why you selected this dissemination strategy.
  • Describe      the measurable outcomes you hope to achieve with the implementation of      this evidence-based change.
  • Be      sure to provide APA citations of the supporting evidence-based peer      reviewed articles you selected to support your thinking.
  • Add      a lessons learned section that includes the following:
    • A       summary of the critical appraisal of the peer-reviewed articles you       previously submitted
    • An       explanation about what you learned from completing the Evaluation Table       within the Critical Appraisal Tool Worksheet Template (1-3 slides)

the aging process.

the aging process.

Define aging from biologic, sociologic, and psychological theories.


Identify the different theories and their implications on the aging process.
Define aging from biologic, sociologic, and psychological theories.

  1. Develop nursing interventions based on the psychosocial issues and biologic changes associated with older adulthood.
  2. Discuss several nursing implications for each of the major biologic, sociologic, and psychological theories of aging.
  3. Based on your experience what health promotion strategies would you recommend to facilitate successful aging?

Adams’ Equity Theory

Adams’ Equity Theory

evaluate the theory in terms of explanatory adequacy for an area of nursing knowledge

explain why you have a chosen it

diagram the theory for logic

analysis/evaluate according to a specific framework

define the concept in terms of:

meaning and measurement

explain and diagram how the concepts relate to each other.

explain how propositions and potential propositions relate to the nursing area.

explain how the theory potentially may help build scientific knowledge in nursing.