Historical Changes

Historical Changes

Choose one of the following programs to discuss: Medicare, or payroll deduction (railroad, interstate, federal programs).

  1. Discuss the historical perspective, demand, and creation of the program.
  2. Explain the background, benefits, who was covered, and the challenges involved in creating the program.
  3. Describe how your program impacts the lack of price transparency and quality today.
  4. Explain the changes in pricing and transparency over the course of your selected program.
  • Write a 1,000- to 1,200-words that covers the following historical changes:
  • Include three scholarly sources, including your textbook. Below is the textbook link:
  • https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/9781284151596/epub/EPUB/xhtml/22_Chapter11_03.html#page_571
  • Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

Virgin America Case

Virgin America Case

Prior to its 2016 acquisition by Alaska Airlines, Virgin America was consistently rated as one of the top U.S. airlines. Founded in 2004, the airline served 20 destinations out of its main hub in San Francisco. Virgin America was known for its leather seats, cocktail-lounge-style lighting, onboard Wi-Fi, in-seat power outlets for electronic devices, full-service meals, and that most scarce of all assets in coach class, legroom. The airline has earned a host of awards since its launch in 2007, including being named the “Best U.S. Airline” in the Condé Nast Traveler Readers’ Choice Awards every year from 2008-2014; and “Best Domestic Airline” in the Travel + Leisure World’s Best Awards for 7 years in a row. Furthermore, Consumer Reports named Virgin America the “Best U.S. Airline” in 2013 and 2014. Industry statistics supported these accolades. In 2014, Virgin was #1 in on-time arrivals in the United States, with 83.5% of aircraft arriving on time. Virgin America also had the lowest level of denied boarding’s (0.07 per 1,000 passengers), and mishandled baggage (0.87 per 1,000 passengers), and the fewest customer complaints (1.50 per 1,000 passengers).

Virgin America was an offshoot of the Virgin Group, the enterprise started by British billionaire Richard Branson. Branson got his start in the music business with Virgin Records stores (established in 1971) and the Virgin Record record label (established in 1973). In 1984, he leveraged the Virgin brand to enter an entirely new industry, airlines, with Virgin Atlantic. Virgin Atlantic became a major competitor to British Airways on a number of long-haul routes out of London, winning market share through superior customer service, innovative perks for premium travelers, and competitive pricing. Branson has also licensed the right to use the Virgin brand name across a wide array of businesses, including Virgin Media (a major U.K. cable operator), Virgin Money (a U.K. financial services company), and Virgin Mobile (a wireless brand that exists in many countries). This strategy has made Virgin one of the most recognizable brands in the world. Interestingly, Branson makes money from royalty payments irrespective of whether companies licensing the Virgin brand are profitable or not. Branson himself describes the Virgin brand as representing, “innovation, quality, and a sense of fun.”

For all of its accolades and the power of the Virgin brand, Virgin America has had a hard time making money. One problem is that, as a small airline, Virgin only has a few flights a day on many routes and is unable to offer consumers the choice of multiple departure times, something that many travelers value. For example, on the popular route for tech workers between San Francisco and Austin, Texas, United offers six flights a day and Jet Blue offers two, compared with just one for Virgin America.

Another serious problem is that providing all of the extra frills necessary to deliver a high-quality experience costs money. In its first 5 years of operation, Virgin America accumulated $440 million in losses before registering a small profit of $67 million on revenues of $1.4 billion in 2013. In 2014, Virgin America went public and managed to post a respectable $150 million in net profits on revenues of close to $1.5 billion. The company was helped by an improving economy, strong demand, and lower jet fuel costs.

The key competitive issue the company faced was that it was a niche player in a much larger industry where low-cost carriers such as Southwest Airlines and Jet Blue put constant pressure on prices and crowded out routes with multiple flights daily. Virgin America charged prices that were 10 to 20% above those of its no-frills rivals, but it could not raise prices too far without losing customers and flying with empty seats, which is a recipe for failure in an industry where margins are slim. On the route between New York’s Kennedy Airport and Los Angeles during late 2012, for example, Virgin passengers were paying an average of $305 a ticket compared to an industry average of $263. Virgin’s passenger-load factor on that route was 96% of the industry average during the same period. Virgin CEO David Cush, however, was adamant that the airline “… won’t get into a fare war. Our product is good; we’ve got good loyalty. People will be willing to pay $20 or $30 more.” Was he correct? We will never know. In 2016, Virgin was acquired by West Coast rival Alaska Airlines, reportedly because Alaska wanted Virgin’s landing slots in San Francisco hub. Although Virgin continued to operate as a division of Alaska for a while, in April 2018 it was fully merged into Alaska’s operating structure, and the brand disappeared.

Case Discussion Questions

  1. What was Virgin America’s segmentation strategy? Who did it serve?
  2. With regard to its core segment, what did Virgin America offer its customers?
  3. Using the Porter model, which generic business-level strategy was Virgin America pursuing?
  4. What actions taken at the functional level enabled Virgin America to implement its strategy?
  5. Do you think Virgin America would have been able to survive had it remained independent? (The company was acquired by Alaska Airlines in 2016.)

Global Maternal And Infant Mortality

Global Maternal And Infant Mortality

1.Relate causes of global maternal and infant mortality and explain the relationship of skilled birth attendants, cleanliness at delivery, and better birth outcomes.


400 words

APA references

Childhood Global Diseases

Compare And Contrast The Major Childhood Global Diseases

  1. Compare and contrast the major childhood global diseases such as pneumonia, diarrheal disease, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and measles.
  2. Analyze examples of cultural influences and reproductive health for men and women and create two solutions to issues surrounding those examples.
  3. Explain the influences of culture and geographic location on aging in two different countries of the world and correlate legal and ethical issues related to their aging.


Please submit one APA formatted presentation (PowerPoint®, Prezi®, etc.) of at least 5 slides per topic. The assignment should have a minimum of four scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook.

health disparity

The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act

Considering the health disparity in the mental health population or addictions, what program and/or advocacy resource would you suggest for this patient and families to manage this situation, and how can you teach them more about the MHPAEA (The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act) benefits?

Lymphatic System

Circulation of Blood

CHAPTER 31: Lymphatic System.


What is meant by the term venous return? What is the overall function of the Lymphatic System? Compare lymphatic vessels with blood vessels. Where are lymph nodes usually found? What functions are carried out by lymph nodes? Where are the tonsils located? What major role does the thymus play in Immunity? What are the major functions of the spleen?


Compose 400 words or more discussion to respond the following:





In anatomical term, where is the heart located? Name the three of the that make up the wall of the heart. What is the function of each layer? Name the four chamber of the heart and the valves associated with them. List the principal structures of the heart´s conduction system. What are the three deflection waves seen in a typical ECG? What event does each ECG wave represent? Name the three major types of blood vessels.


Compose 400 words or more discussion to respond the following:



Discussion 4



Name the fluid portion of the whole blood. What constitutes the formed elements of blood? List the granulocytic and a granulocytic   leucocyte. Discuss the destruction of red blood cells in the body. Identify the two basic coagulation steps.


Compose 400 words or more discussion to respond the following:

nursing practice

nursing practice

How has nursing practice evolved over time? Discuss the key leaders and historical events that have influenced the advancement of nursing, nursing education, and nursing roles that are now part of the contemporary nursing profession.


In 150 to 200 words. Include 2 references

sociological culture

sociological imagination

This discussion aims to make you use your sociological imagination to understand cultural differences and to help you identify the cultural components and processes that result in different worldviews. This assignment requires applications of sociological concepts from culture and socialization.



You need to use your sociological imagination to understand the culture and socialization depicted in the above cartoon. Read chapters 3 and 5 on Culture and Socialization as well as the course modules and start a discussion by writing answers to the following questions:

What is the point of disagreement between the two women; why do they have differences of opinions, and what is it that they both agree on


Discussion should apply sociological concepts such as norms, values, beliefs, ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, agents of socialization, gender socialization, etc.


Reply to a minimum of 2 classmates with additional information, terms, theoretical perspectives, follow-up questions, and authentic discussion interactions. Also, respond to others who have responded to you. Lackadaisical responses and disrespectful comments will not be accepted.