Neurodevelopmental disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders begin in the developmental period of childhood and may continue through adulthood. They may range from the very specific to a general or global impairment, and often co-occur (APA, 2013). They include specific learning and language disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disabilities. Neurocognitive disorders, on the other hand, represent a decline in one or more areas of prior mental function that is significant enough to impact independent functioning. They may occur at any time in life and be caused by factors such brain injury; diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, or Huntington’s; infection; or stroke, among others.

Medical History

CASE STUDY

You are working with Dr. Stephanie Lee at her family medicine clinic. Dr. Lee tells you, “The next patient, Mrs. Payne, is a 45-year-old cisgender female who is here for a health maintenance exam. It looks like she hasn’t had a visit for over five years. When you’re talking with Mrs. Payne, I’d like you to find out if she has any current concerns, update her past medical history, and do a brief review of systems. Then, come on out and tell me what you’ve discovered and we’ll both go in to do the physical exam together.”

You introduce yourself to Mrs. Payne and begin obtaining her history:

Medical History:

“Do you mind if I ask you a few questions to find out how you are doing?”

Mrs. Payne says, “That sounds fine.”

“What brought you in today?”

“I feel fine, but I know I should get checked out since it’s been a while and I need to have a Pap test and mammogram.”

“I would like to update your medical history. Do you have any chronic medical problems?”

“Well, I don’t really have any medical problems.”

“Have you had any operations?”

“I had my tubes tied shortly after the birth of my last child.”

“Are you on any medications, or are you allergic to any medications?”

“I take an occasional Tylenol or ibuprofen for pain or headache and a multivitamin. I’m not allergic to any medicine as far as I know.”

 

Social History:

“Have you ever smoked?”

“Yes, I’m afraid I do smoke a pack of cigarettes a week. I keep trying to quit, but I just never seem to be able to do it.”

“Do you drink alcohol?”

“No, I don’t drink any alcohol at all.”

“Have you ever used any recreational drugs?”

“I never tried any illegal drugs. My friends have smoked marijuana but I was always too afraid to try.”

“How much do you exercise?”

“I used to try to walk at lunchtime, but I don’t do that anymore. It just seems like I’ve been too busy to have time to exercise.”

“Have you been hit, kicked, punched, or otherwise hurt by someone in the past year? If so, by whom?”

“No, I feel safe.”

Family History:

“How is the health of your family members?”

“My father has high blood pressure and my mother has mild arthritis, but both are in good health. My two sisters are healthy.”

“What about your extended family?”

“I don’t know how my grandparents died, but I think one of them had diabetes. My mom’s sister has breast cancer but is doing well after surgery and chemotherapy.”

Mrs. Payne asks you, “Does having an aunt with breast cancer increase my risk of developing breast cancer? My aunt was diagnosed with breast cancer when she was about 70 years old.”

You were able to reassure Mrs. Payne that the risk is increased only if there is a history in a first-degree relative, such as a parent or sibling.

 

OB/GYN:

“How old were you when your periods began?”

rationalist

rationalist

 

Descartes was a rationalist.  This means that he believed some knowledge ultimately comes from reason, pure thought.  Recall that he believed all knowledge was based on the basic idea that God is not a deceiver, and thus whatever he believes “clearly and distinctly” must be true.

 

On the other side of this issue, stands the empiricists.  They believed that all knowledge ultimately comes from experience.  The main proponents of this theory were Locke and Hume (note that Berkeley was an empiricist).  They believed that everything in our minds came from the senses and that if something was not derived from the senses, it could not be a real idea.  This is what lead Hume to conclude that things like “causation,” “liberty,” and “self” were not really ideas, but meaningless words we throw around.

 

Believing empiricism was true, many of the early psychologists argued that the only way to conduct a science of the mind was through observable behavior (since other people’s thoughts and beliefs are not observable).  The most famous psychological behaviorist was B.F. Skinner, who felt that if there were “mental states,” they had no effect on behavior.  Thus, the focus should be on behavior, not mental states.

 

Many philosophers saw what Skinner was doing, and believing in empiricism, developed that idea that mental states were nothing but our physical behavior.  This was their reasoning:

 

  1. Something is not a real idea unless it is derived from sense experience
  2. Thus, a sentence is meaningful only if it contains ideas which were derived from sense experience. (this is known as logical empiricism).  So, if we cannot tell whether a         sentence is true by looking to the sensible world, then it is meaningless.

 

  1. Because of this, these theorists believed that the meaning of a sentence just is its method of verification.  For example, to understand what the sentence, “The cat is on the           mat” means just is to understand how to verify it.  (this is the verifiability theory of           meaning)

 

  1. So, now consider how one determines whether another person is thirsty, or in pain, or in love.  What you do is to look at their behavior.  Since the method of verification is an    examination of external behavior, it follows that all we mean by “thirsty,” “pain,” or       “love,” is the external behavior, period.

 

Logical behaviorism is a better theory than Cartesian Dualism in the sense that it is simpler, it postulates fewer entities in the world.  It has also been more fruitful and more conservative than Cartesian dualism (e.g., it solves the problem of other minds, allows predictions and fits with existing scientific theories).

 

Objections

  1. This theory is false if it is possible for a person to “be in pain,” and not exhibit external behaviors consistent with “being in pain.” Also, the theory is false if it is possible for a person to exhibit the behavior of “being in pain” without “being in pain.” (Consider thought experiments p.68)…..since mental states are “feelings”–qualia–then these counterexamples seem possible.

 

  1. The verifiability theory of meaning is flawed (step 3 above). The easiest way to see this is to ask, “how can we verify if the verifiability theory of meaning is true?” There is no way, hence by the theory itself, it is meaningless.

 

Identity Theory

 

The example of Phineas Gage (1848) was one of the first recorded cases where a change in the physiology of the brain lead to a marked change in one’s personality (mind).  Because of this case, and many others like it, people started to believe that there was a very close link between the physiology of the brain and the mind, or our mental states.  The doctrine that our mental states just are brain states is known as the identity theory.  Like logical behaviorism, identity theory does not assume the existence of any “mental stuff” (so it is a materialist theory).  And like logical behaviorism, it seems to fit well with existing scientific theory and to be able to explain many things which the Cartesian dualists cannot (like how the “mind” and the brain interacts).

 

Objections

  1. If true, then whatever is true of mental states is true of brain states. As the book points out, each will not necessarily share the same subjective properties (what someone thinks about it), but they must share all objective properties.

For example, you may not believe that Samuel Clemens wrote Huckleberry Finn, but              you do believe that Mark Twain wrote Huckleberry Finn.  The fact that Samuel Clemens            and Mark Twain do not share these subjective properties does not mean they are not       identical (they are).  To be identical they must share all objective properties (size,                 location, color).

And since there is some objective property of brain states that mental states do not have,  namely that of “being known through empirical investigation,” the identity theory has a problem.  Thomas Nagel argues that we can never know what it is like to be some other conscious thing (he uses a bat).

 

  1. If the identity theory were true, then it would be impossible for creatures without a brain to have mental states. However, this does seem logically possible, maybe even physically possible (consider the thought experiment; J. Searle’s “Brain Replacement”).

Performance Management Plan Proposal

Performance management is, ideally, an ongoing quality-assurance-based process. The process provides an organization, its employees, regulatory agencies, accreditors, and other stakeholders with a structured means to support and accomplish mutually identified strategic goals and objectives.

Assume the role of a newly-hired risk management officer for a hypothetical new allied health organization in your chosen career field. You and your team will need to develop the organization’s policies.

The first item you will create will be a performance management plan. The HIM Briefings (2019) article, which includes Lean, Six Sigma, or PDSA, is located in the Topic Materials. Using the resources in HIM Briefings or another qualified framework, craft a proposal (1,250-1,500 words) for a performance management plan for the new organization that includes the following:

Organizational Goals

  • Organizational Goals: Provide a statement of the organization’s goals regarding workplace safety, risk management, or quality improvement; select one area, and develop five goals for that specific area.
  • Outline of Organizational Objectives: Outline and provide a brief evaluation of specific objectives that support the organizational goals you previously identified, to include the use of an interdisciplinary approach to patient care.
  • Rationale: Evaluate the use of the interdisciplinary approach to patient care in the performance management plan. What provisions were planned in order to include this approach effectively?
  • Quality and Process Outcomes: Describe the importance of quality and process outcomes within one’s scope of practice.
  • Summary of Relevant Performance Measures: Summarize the steps and measures the new organization will adopt to measure performance. Consider (a) how well measures will align with the stated goals, (b) how these measures demonstrate the importance of quality and the relationship to positive health outcomes, (c) how the measures are able to be controlled by the organization (i.e., how the organization can affect change in this area), and (d) how the measures meet criteria related to reliability and validity, and are standardized.
  • performance baseline

  • Performance Baseline: Determine a performance baseline for the measures selected. This will enable the organization to conduct comparisons of desired goals versus actual results over time.
  • Performance Evaluation: Select one of three commonly accepted methods to measure provider quality. Summarize the features and why it applies best to the organization. Refer to the assigned reading, “The Measurement of Health Care Performance: A Primer from the Council of Medical Specialty Societies.”
  • Definition of Success: Define what success means to the organization. Now that you have chosen measures to assess organizational performance, identify what success means to the organization; otherwise, you are chasing a moving target. Be explicit in the level of performance you see as acceptable. This will change as an organization grows, but you need to start somewhere in order to get anywhere.

Computer Forensics

Computer Forensics

  1. Computer Forensics is a fast growing and ever changing field of study. Describe the qualities and skill-set to be looked for in an Incident Response Team.
  2. Discuss the future trends and directions that you see computer forensics headed.
  3. Using the Online Library, find an article, case study, or publication about your favorite topic covered in this computer forensics course – then summarize the article in a paragraph and submit your summary along with a copy of the article or the link of the article to this discussion for sharing.

Acute Healthcare Systems in the United States

Acute Healthcare Systems in the United States

This project will help explain how health care particularly acute setting is delivered in the United States, what costs are involved, and how the concepts of value and quality influence health care delivery. This project also focuses on the health system delivery issues and how one can help alleviate such perceived problems facing our health care system.

-Discuss the Health System Program History and the regulatory agency that governs the system. Eligibility/Insured Benefit

-Identify a Health Systems Delivery issue on your selected Program. Present a clear and concise problem statement including why systems change is needed

-After analyzing the issues in health systems delivery, discuss what role the government plays in correcting the issues

-Write/propose a strategic plan integrating rigorous knowledge development processes. Include supporting arguments proving your proposed plan.

-Five (5) reputable and current sources (within 5 years) were cited within visual presentation. All references were in correct APA Format 7-9 pages including references.

 

Six Keys to Leading Positive Change by Rosabeth Moss Kanter

Discussion 2: Leading Positive Change

 

In this Discussion, you will reflect on the video Six Keys to Leading Positive Change by Rosabeth Moss Kanter. Consider the impact of the changes you are attempting to implement and how the video may help you achieve success. Of the six keys Kanter discusses, which do you believe will influence your ability to implement change effectively? Are there additional keys to success you believe are critical to change management that Kanter does not discuss?

 

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review this week’s Learning Resources, especially:

 

 

Assignment:

Respond to at least two (2) of your peers’ postings listed below in one or more of the following ways:

 

  • Compare your analysis of Kanter’s Six Keys to your peer’s analysis. Are there any elements of your peer’s analysis you hadn’t thought of? What additional thoughts can you add to their analysis for consideration?

 

  • Looking at your peer’s list of characteristics, what characteristics most resonated with you? Do you agree with the list they have outlined? Do you think they are missing any key characteristics from their list?
  • 3 – 4 paragraphs
  • No plagiarism
  • APA citing

 

Cyber Security

Cyber Security

Instructions

Answer the following questions:

1. What would be effective results of a security investment for a small business and how does it compare to larger corporations? Should it include important concepts from governmental and public/private sectors?

2. Should external stakeholders been involved in the decision-making process of risk management plans? Explain how various decision makers have different responsibilities and necessities for the inputs and outputs within an organization?

3. What are some of the key roles and responsibilities of government, industry, academia, and other non-governmental organizations with respect to critical infrastructure risk?

Technical Requirements

  • Your paper must be at a minimum of 5 pages, with each question being at least 1-2 pages (the Title and Reference pages do not count towards the minimum limit).
  • Use headings to differentiate each answer.
  • Scholarly and credible references should be used. A good rule of thumb is at least 2 scholarly sources per page of content. Scholarly sources include peer reviewed articles, government publications, and academic texts.
  • Type in Times New Roman, 12 point and double space.
  • Students will follow the current APA Style as the sole citation and reference style used in written work submitted as part of coursework.
  • Points will be deducted for the use of Wikipedia or encyclopedic type sources. It is highly advised to utilize books, peer-reviewed journals, articles, archived documents, etc.

The Teaching Girls Bravery

reflective journal style essay

1. The Teaching Girls Bravery video was assigned for you to watch the first week of class.  If you need to review it please go back to module 1.

The assignment Is to write a reflective journal style essay.  In this essay you need to write a minimum of 800 words following elementary English grammar, punctuation and organization style you should be comfortable with in the university.  The journal style is unique in that you take what we have been reading/discussing and you relate the material to person life experience.  The goal is to enhance learning through reflection.  The concepts that we are discussing in the course are ones that we readily see in our daily life and can be very personal.  There is no right or wrong answers that you can writing in your journal.  I am looking to see if you understood the basic issues we are addressing and that you are able to relate the issue to your own experience.

If you have completed the assigned journal entry in a sincere manner, you will receive full credit for the assignment. That credit will be lessened only if your entries are unacceptably brief or intentionally do not address the topic. The journal rewards effort and participation. It provides an opportunity to succeed no matter where you are starting from if you sincerely dedicate yourself.

Journal entries are used as tools for student reflection. By consciously thinking about and comparing issues, life experiences, and course readings, students are better able to understand links between theory and practice and to generate justifiable, well-supported opinions. This kind of writing assignment is meant to be interactive, as students engage with ideas and experiences that bring about questions, comparisons, insights, criticisms, speculations, and tentative conclusions.

For today’s assignment please discuss what was significant about the video we are watching on “Teaching Girls Bravery”

https://www.ted.com/talks/reshma_saujani_teach_girls_bravery_not_perfection?language=en

2. Your assignment is to write a reflective journal style essay.  In this essay you need to write a minimum of 800 words following elementary English grammar, punctuation and organization style you should be comfortable with in the university.  The journal style is unique in that you take what we have been reading/discussing and you relate the material to person life experience.  The goal is to enhance learning through reflection.  The concepts that we are discussing in the course are ones that we readily see in our daily life and can be very personal.  There is no right or wrong answers that you can writing in your journal.  I am looking to see if you understood the basic issues we are addressing and that you are able to relate the issue to your own experience.

If you have completed the assigned journal entry in a sincere manner, you will receive full credit for the assignment. That credit will be lessened only if your entries are unacceptably brief or intentionally do not address the topic. The journal rewards effort and participation. It provides an opportunity to succeed no matter where you are starting from if you sincerely dedicate yourself.

Journal entries are used as tools for student reflection. By consciously thinking about and comparing issues, life experiences, and course readings, students are better able to understand links between theory and practice and to generate justifiable, well-supported opinions. This kind of writing assignment is meant to be interactive, as students engage with ideas and experiences that bring about questions, comparisons, insights, criticisms, speculations, and tentative conclusions.

For today’s assignment please discuss what was significant about the short story that  we are reading on “A Better Place”. Ms. Magazine – Vol XXIV, No 2 / 2014 Summer

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Feminist Storyteller (attached)

A 60-year-old man with no prior history of illness had a mild upper respiratory infection

Week 9 Q 3

A 60-year-old man with no prior history of illness had a mild upper respiratory infection for a few days, and yesterday suddenly developed fever, rigors, and right-sided chest pain with inspiration. This morning, he was coughing up yellow sputum with rust-colored blood tinging. His temperature on admission was 102oF.  Rales were audible over the lower right chest posteriorly.  Chest x-ray demonstrated a right lower lobe consolidated infiltrate with air bronchograms.  CBC revealed a white cell count of 18,000, with 70 polys, 10 bands, and 20 lymphocytes. The remainder of the CBC was normal.

  1. Discuss the differential diagnosis.
  2. What is the most likely diagnosis?
  3. Explain the pathophysiology.

What are the common pathogens causing pneumonia in patients of different ages and comorbidities? (i.e. infants, elderly, young adults, smokers, HIV+…)