1.In what ways did Byzantium continue the traditions of the Roman Empire, and in what ways did it diverge from Rome and become its own unique civilization? Be sure to use specific historical evidence to support your answer.
2.As head of the Catholic Church, the pope is considered a religious leader, but to what extent were medieval popes political leaders as well? Discuss the role medieval popes played in politics. Be sure to use specific historical evidence to support your answer.
3.Discuss how Muslim scholars of the Islamic Golden Age adapted and expanded upon the philosophical and/or scientific traditions of Classical Greece. Be sure to use specific historical evidence to support your answer.
4.How might Charlemagne have been trying to create a new type of leadership while still integrating Roman and Christian values of previous leaders?
5.How did the Black Death fundamentally change medieval European society in terms of religion, economics, culture, and/or class structure?
Be sure to use specific historical evidence to support your answer.
6.In what ways did Italian Renaissance scholars embrace classicism and build upon it to create new schools of thought?
7.Why did Europeans engage in “voyages of discovery” during the 15th century, and what social and economic impacts did these voyages have on Europe, Africa, and the Americas?
8.Discuss the main tenets of Lutheranism, how these tenets challenged the Catholic Church establishment, and how the Catholic Church responded.