Identify What Is Open to Dispute


In this section we present several steps to identifying an issue. You don’t have to follow them in this particular order, and you may find yourself going back. And forth among them as you try to bring an issue into focus.

Keep in mind that issues do not simply exist in the world well formed. Instead, writers construct what they see as issues from the situations they observe. For example, consider legislation to limit downloads from the Internet. If such legislation conflicts with your own practices and sense of freedom. You may have begun to identify an issue: the clash of values over what constitutes fair use. And what does not. Be aware that others may not understand your issue. And that in your writing you will have to explain carefully what is at stake.

◼ Draw on Your Personal Experience

You may have been taught that formal writing is objective, that you must keep a dispassionate distance from your subject. And that you should not use I in a college-level paper. The fact is, however, that our personal experiences influence how we read, what we pay attention to, and what inferences we draw. It makes sense, then, to begin with you — where you are and what you think and believe.

We all use personal experience to make arguments in our everyday lives. In an academic context, the challenge is to use personal experience to argue a point, to illustrate something, or to illuminate a connection between theories and the sense we make of our daily experience. You don’t want simply to tell your story. You want your story to strengthen your argument.

Cultural Literacy,

For example, in Cultural Literacy, E. D. Hirsch personalizes his interest in reversing the cycle of illiteracy in America’s cities. To establish the nature of the problem in the situation he describes, he cites research showing that student performance on standardized tests in the United States is falling. But he also reflects on his own teaching in the 1970s, when he first perceived “the widening knowledge gap [that] caused me to recognize the connection between specific background knowledge and mature literacy.” And he injects anecdotal evidence from conversations with his son, a teacher. Those stories heighten readers’ awareness that school-aged children do not know much about literature, history, or government. (For example, his son mentions a student who challenged his claim that Latin is a “dead language” by demanding, “What do they speak in Latin America?”)

Hirsch’s use of his son’s testimony makes him vulnerable to criticism, as readers might question whether Hirsch can legitimately use his son’s experience to make generalizations about education. But in fact, Hirsch is using personal testimony — his own and his son’s — to augment and put a human face on the research he cites. He presents his issue, that schools must teach cultural literacy, both as something personal and as something with which we should all be concerned. The personal note helps readers see Hirsch as someone who has long been concerned with education and who has even raised a son who is an educator.

◼ Identify What Is Open to Dispute

An issue is something that is open to dispute. Sometimes the way to clarify an issue is to think of it as a fundamental tension between two or more conflicting points of view. If you can identify conflicting points of view, an issue may become clear.

Consider E. D. Hirsch, who believes that the best approach to educational reform is to change the curriculum in schools. His position: A curriculum based on cultural literacy is the one sure way to reverse the cycle of poverty and illiteracy in urban areas.

What is the issue? Hirsch’s issue emerges in the presence of an alternative position. Jonathan Kozol, a social activist who has written extensively about educational reform, believes that policymakers need to address reform by providing the necessary resources that all students need to learn. Kozol points out that students in many inner-city schools are reading outdated textbooks and that the dilapidated conditions in these schools — windows that won’t close, for example — make it impossible for students to learn.

In tension are two different views of the reform that can reverse illiteracy: Hirsch’s view that educational reform should occur through curricular changes, and Kozol’s view that educational reform demands socioeconomic resources.

◼ Resist Binary Thinking

As you begin to define what is at issue, try to tease out complexities that may not be immediately apparent. That is, try to resist the either/or mindset that signals binary thinking.

If you considered only what Hirsch and Kozol have to say, it would be easy to characterize the problems facing our schools as either curricular or socioeconomic. But it may be that the real issue combines these arguments with a third or even a fourth, that neither curricular nor socioeconomic changes by themselves can resolve the problems with American schools.

After reading essays by both Hirsch and Kozol, one of our students pointed out that both Hirsch’s focus on curriculum and Kozol’s socioeconomic focus ignore another concern. She went on to describe her school experience in racial terms. In the excerpt below, notice how this writer uses personal experience (in a new school, she is not treated as she had expected to be treated) to formulate an issue.

Moving from Colorado Springs to Tallahassee, I was immediately struck by the differences apparent in local home life, school life, and community unity, or lack thereof. Ripped from my sheltered world at a small Catholic school characterized by racial harmony, I was thrown into a large public school where outward prejudice from classmates and teachers and “race wars” were common and tolerated. . . .

Martin Luther King’s

In a school where students and teachers had free rein to abuse anyone different from them, I was constantly abused. As the only black student in English honors, I was commonly belittled in front of my “peers” by my teacher. If I developed courage enough to ask a question, I was always answered with the use of improper grammar and such words as “ain’t” as my teacher attempted to simplify the material to “my level” and to give me what he called “a little learning.”

After discussing several subjects, he often turned to me, singling me out of a sea of white faces, and asked, “Do you understand, Mila?” When asking my opinion of a subject, he frequently questioned, “What do your people think about this?” Although he insisted on including such readings as Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech in the curriculum, the speech’s themes of tolerance and equity did not accompany his lesson.

Through her reading, this student discovered that few prominent scholars have confronted the issue of racism in schools directly. Although she grants that curricular reform and increased funding may be necessary to improve education, she argues that scholars also need to address race in their studies of teaching and learning.

Our point is that issues may be more complex than you first think they are. For this student, the issue wasn’t one of two positions — reform the curriculum or provide more funding. Instead, it combined a number of different positions, including race (“prejudice” and “race wars”) and the relationship between student and teacher (“Do you understand, Mila?”) in a classroom.

In this passage, the writer uses her experience to challenge binary thinking. Like the student writer, you should examine issues from different perspectives, avoiding either/or propositions that oversimplify the world.

◼ Build on and Extend the Ideas of Others

Academic writing builds on and extends the ideas of others. As an academic writer, you will find that by extending other people’s ideas, you will extend your own. You may begin in a familiar place, but as you read more and pursue connections to other readings, you may well end up at an unexpected destination.

For example, one of our students was troubled when he read Melissa Stormont-Spurgin’s description of homeless children. The student uses details from her work (giving credit, of course) in his own:

The children . . . went to school after less than three hours of sleep. They wore the same wrinkled clothes that they had worn the day before. What will their teachers think when they fall asleep in class? How will they get food for lunch? What will their peers think? What could these homeless children talk about with their peers? They have had to grow up too fast. Their worries are not the same as other children’s worries. They are worried about their next meal and where they will seek shelter. Their needs, however, are the same. They need a home and all of the securities that come with it. They also need an education (Stormont-Spurgin 156).

Humanities Knowledge Assessment

Humanities Knowledge Assessment


Essay Directions:


Utilizing information learned in HCC humanities classes, write an essay addressing the following prompt statement.


Discuss an important concept or prominent figure from one of the disciplines of the humanities; visual art, music, dance, theatre, literature, religion or philosophy. The essay should utilize core terminology/vocabulary of the selected discipline in the discussion of the concept or prominent figure. Your essay should be formatted as follows: Typed. Two pages/500 word minimum; double-spaced; 12 pt Times New Roman font; 1” margins.


Essays will be evaluated on the following criteria:


Knowledge and understanding of topic.

Ability to provide specific reasons of why topic is being discussed.

Use of frequent and direct references to main topic discussion points.

Use of Standard English writing conventions.

Essays will be evaluated on the following criteria:


IDEAS–focus on topic; effective support; explains & discusses main points

ORGANIZATION–underlying plan to guide reader; progresses logically

WORDING / DICTION–clear, straight-forward, lacks wordiness & inappropriate expressions

SENTENCES–clear & well constructed; avoids fragments & run-ons; variety in structure & length

GRAMMAR–reflects standard written English; spelling & punctuation do not interfere with meaning

mass media law

Use the links and pdf’s to help answer the questions.


1. What do we in mass media law, and you as future media professionals, mean by “indecency” versus what an average person might think it means?

2. Is it somewhat inconsistent that something “indecent” or that something that’s “pornographic” (which is NOT a legal/constitutional definition) has constitutional protection, yet something “obscene” doesn’t? [After all, nasty explicit sex acts on the Web, as the furry beasts in Avenue Q would tell you, are protected speech under the First Amendment, so media outlets dealing in them or at the borderline have some protection from prosecution for them as a crime, or direct content regulation/censorship/prior restraint.]

3. There is some confusion and inconsistency even when we have a legal definition of indecency in the regulatory realm. Why? Because this, at its root, comes back to personal beliefs and attitudes, intercultural communications concepts, and co-culture (race, ethnicity, religion, community), subculture, sexual orientation and views on gender roles, faith matters. This all spills into politics, and politics spills into law and regulatory regimes governing indecency in mass media. Here, typically we mean legacy television (CBS, ABC, NBC, Fox content, plus “basic” cable or satellite-produced shows) and terrestrial (rather than SiriusXM) radio.

history of the sex offender notification/registration in the United States

history of the sex offender notification/registration in the United States

Provide a brief history of the sex offender notification/registration in the United States and explain the specific sex offender registration laws in your state (or a state that you are curious about). Review the video titled, “The Role of Probation and Parole” found in this module’s Learn section. Expound upon ways to effectively manage high-risk sex offenders in our communities; consider challenges they may experience when attempting to reintegrate back into society. From a Christian viewpoint, justify whether or not life-long sex offender registration is a just concept.

800 words


Respond to listed statements in at least 300 words each statement . Do you agree or disagree with the statement?

Statement 1 Debilitation aims to weaken incarcerated individuals, but the question needs to be posed as to whether this is the outcome. With all of these sentencing models, the problem of wrongly convicting individuals always arises. Sarat et al. (2017) has presented several arguments against the death penalty. But note that one of the main argued areas is an error.

Statement 2:  Retribution is the act of rendering punishment on a person (offender) for a crime committed. In the American legal system, for retribution to be carried out there must be a conviction. Deterrence is a goal in sentencing, focused to prevent certain behaviors or crime from happening again through punishment (Masters et al., ).

Johnson vs. Coldrock Tire and Rubber Company

Mock Trial


Case: Johnson vs. Coldrock Tire and Rubber Company



In March 2016, John “Johnny” Johnson, a mechanic employed by Infiniti of Parkland, attempted to mount a 16-inch tire on a 17-inch rim of an Infiniti G35 wheel. While installing the tire, he leaned and reached over the assembly and the tire exploded, causing him serious, permanent injuries. Mr. Johnson lost three fingers of his right hand in the accident, as well as the vision in his right eye. In addition to his job at the dealership, Mr. Johnson was an aspiring reggae musician who the day of the accident had received a multi-million dollar record contract offer from Tinseltown Records. Mr. Johnson filed suit in Florida’s 17th Judicial Circuit Court against his employer,

American Hawk Company– the manufacturer of the wheel, Nissan Motor Company – the manufacturer of the automobile and designer of the wheel and Coldrock Tire and Rubber Company – the manufacturer of the tire. Mr. Johnson had 10 years of experience as a mechanic and had received three days of on-site training from representatives of Coldrock. The dealership, wheel manufacturer and automobile manufacturer all settled, leaving Coldrock as the remaining defendant.


This is a civil tort case and not a criminal one. Causes of actions will consist of claims for

1. Negligence, and

2. (Strict) product liability


An issue in the case is the labeling on the tire. The tire had a label, advising users never to mount a 16-inch tire on a 17-inch rim, warning of the danger of severe injury or death, and included a drawing of a mechanic leaning over the tire to install it with a circle and red line drawn through it. Whether the label was sufficiently conspicuous or adequately depicted the resulting danger or risk of injury, remains an open issue. In depositions, Johnson admitted that he ignored these warnings at the urging of his employer, especially because it was common practice to install smaller tires on larger rims of the Infiniti G35. During discovery, Johnson’s attorneys explored why Coldrock did not use a safer “bead” design.

The bead is a rubber encased steel wire, which circles the tire and holds it on to the rim. Each side has offered up experts, with Johnson’s pointing out that other manufacturers use different and safer bead designs and Coldrock’s arguing that the Coldrock design was the safest in the industry, and a different design would not have changed the outcome.


The defendant in the case is Roger “Cole” Coldrock, CEO of the company, who is being represented by the Wall Street firm of Ben, Jarvis, Green & Ellis, LLP. The plaintiff is being represented by the law firm of Dewey, Cheatum & Howe, LLP, a specialist in product liability suits. The assigned judge in the case is the Hon. Solomon Cardozo Holmes, a recent appointee by the Republican governor. Before his appointment, Judge Holmes was in private practice with a large Fort Lauderdale firm; his major client was General Motors.

Carrier’s Liability

Vanessa Denai owned forty acres of land in rural Louisiana. On the property were a 1,600-square-foot house and a metal barn. Denai met Lance Finney. Who had been seeking a small plot of rural property to rent. After several meetings, Denai invited Finney to live on a corner of her land in exchange for Finney’s assistance in cutting wood and tending her property. Denai agreed to store Finney’s sailboat in her barn.

With Denai’s consent, Finney constructed a concrete and oak foundation on Denai’s property. And purchased a 190-square-foot dome from Dome Baja for $3,395. The dome was shipped by Doty Express, a transportation company licensed to serve the public. When it arrived, Finney installed the dome frame and fabric exterior so that the dome was detachable from the foundation. A year after Finney installed the dome, Denai wrote Finney a note stating, “I’ve decided to give you four acres of land surrounding your dome as drawn on this map.” This gift violated no local land-use restrictions. Using the information presented in the chapter, answer the following questions.

  1. Is the dome real property or personal property? Explain.
  2. Is Denai’s gift of land to Finney a gift causa mortis or a gift inter vivos?
  3. What type of bailment relationship was created when Denai agreed to store Finney’s boat? What degree of care was Denai required to exercise in storing the boat? standard of care applied to the shipment of the dome by Doty Express?

Debate This:
Common carriers should not be able to limit their liability.

Challenging The Reliance of Import Economy

Challenging The Reliance of Import Economy

Greetings Rossana G Nieves, and BUL2261 Law of International Trade – Virtual College Students:

After watching the video: Michael Shuman on Going Local: Creating Self-Reliant Communities in the Global Age, complete the following critical thinking questions – support your position(s) with cited academic/peer reviewed and credible resources. After answering the questions, respond to at least one other classmate’s post with substantive (challenging) information/questions/additional sources.

Watch Video

Answer All Discussion Questions:

  1. Why have imports?
  2. Why limit imports?
  3. How would a city or region that imported less benefit from limiting imports?
  4. What types of products could be more locally produced? Why? How?
  5. In what other areas would self-reliance be a good idea? (other “essentials”)
  6. What are local examples of self-reliance or import substitution? (farmers’ markets, local fairs with local products)
  7. Does self-reliance mean no trade?
  8. In what ways do current laws/regulations make it difficult for businesses to stay local (not export) their labor/resources/businesses? Be Specific.

Ethics of Health Care Professionals

Ethics of Health Care Professionals

Complete the ethics self-assessment found on American College of Healthcare Executives Web site.

Following your assessment, write a 2–3-page analysis of the areas where you are strong in your ethics and the areas where you may examine further to define or improve your ethical stance.

For example, how might you promote discussion of controversial issues affecting community or patient health?

Identify at least 2 sources that you might use to resolve a personal or professional ethical conflict. Cite at least 1 professional reference using APA format.

excellent leadership in healthcare

Please Reply to the following 2 Discussion posts:





APA format with intext citation

Word count minimum of 150 words per post

References at least one high-level scholarly reference per post within in the last 5 years.

Plagiarism free.

Turnitin receipt.




Having an excellent leadership in healthcare can greatly assist in shaping the organization’s culture by emphasizing the significance of giving compassionate and safe care to everyone. There are several types of leadership theory that healthcare system can utilize such as: relational, servant, situational or contingency, clinical and congruent, and transformational or transactional leadership. According to Jeff Belksy (2016), many traditional healthcare leadership models have failed which consequently led to medical errors and higher nurse turnover rates.

servant leadership

When it comes to healthcare; servant leadership seems like a great model because its main focus is on seeking the needs of the team and finding ways to improve. Furthermore, Catherine Best (2020) further explains that some characteristics of a servant leader includes: “…authenticity, humility, integrity, listening, compassion, accountability, courage, altruism…” (Best, 2020). These characteristics help cultivate and develop all members of the team in order to flourish and achieve their maximum potential by building high mutual trust towards one another. Furthermore, high mutual trust will facilitate care efficiently and effectively.

Many hospitals exercise servant leadership. However, an example during my experience as a nurse, is when nurse shift managers hold mid shift meetings in order to address any concerns in the unit or any ideas that can be used to improve the care being provided to the patients as well as preventing nurse burnout or alleviate work related stress. Holding these mid shift meetings were important because it helps target the concerns of each team members and determine whether it can be resolve at that time.





Within nursing, there are different styles of leadership that we encounter. According to (Sfantou et al., 2017), leadership styles play an integral role in enhancing quality measures in health care and nursing. Impact on health-related outcomes differs according to the different leadership styles, while they may broaden or close the existing gap in health care.

The leadership style that I have chosen based on my experience is transformational leadership. As stated by (Pullen, 2016)Transformational leadership creates valuable and positive change in individuals and social systems with the end goal of developing followers into leaders. Transformational leaders display three general characteristics: 1) individualized consideration—the degree to which the leader focuses on each follower’s needs; 2) intellectual stimulation—the degree to which the leader changes assumptions, challenges the status quo, and takes risks; and 3) inspiration motivation—he or she “walks the talk.” In other words, transformational leaders are role models for the change process.

End Stage Renal Disease

Most of my career, I provided care to patients who experienced chronic diseases, End Stage Renal Disease, pre- & post-kidney transplant. As their nurse & leader I stand as an advocate for them. I challenge them to be compliant on their recommended diet and take required routine medication which will provide a positive impact to their monthly laboratory results. Furthermore, I educate them if they are not meeting the goal, consistently following-up with them making sure they are still on track. In that way, patients feel that they are fully engaged in their care and have a sense of Independence.

In my opinion, taking the role of a future APN, a transformational leader is being influential by setting a good example to your patients. It is important to be transparent and provide effective communication on how to manage their care. I would like to show my patients how compassionate and dedicated I am making them feel motivated and empowered. (Fischer, 2017)Historically, it was thought that only nurses in management roles required leadership skills; however, the ability to influence change is a requirement at all levels of clinical practice. Transformational leadership competencies provide nurses with the skills to contribute to improvements in the quality and safety of patient care, while enhancing their career satisfaction.