There are two boxes, containing 1 black ball and 10 white balls and 6 black balls and 7 white balls respectively. 4 Balls are randomly taken from the first box and put in the second box. Then one ball is drawn out from the second. Find the probability that:

1) the ball is white
2) only white balls were taken from the first box and the ball taken from the second box is black

advantages and disadvantages of technology

advantages and disadvantages of technology

What are the advantages and disadvantages of technology use in human service delivery?  Provide specific examples of the advantages and disadvantages you identify.

pathogens and protection

pathogens and protection

what you know about pathogens and protection. You can use the additional resources .  Then design an information poster or brochure to help  the public understand how their body has defense mechanisms in place against invading pathogens. Be creative but accurate and engaging. Decide who the audience is and make the media relevant and accessible to the audience.

1.  How does clotting protect us?

2.  What is the role of mucous membranes, cilia, tears

3.  What are the function of sebaceous and sweat glands



We see sinful behavior all around us, including in the virtual world. The Scriptures warn us about evil practices. When one thinks of information systems security, a biblical verse that encourages us to prepare for a hacker or attacker is not usually considered, but consider Proverbs 2:11, “Discretion will protect you, and understanding will guard you” (NIV). In addition, Psalm 34:19 states, “The righteous person may have troubles, but the Lord delivers him from them all” (NIV). When we are vigilant, God promises to bless our efforts.

  1. Be sure to address the following prompts in your paper:
    1. Considering your religious/cultural background, what do you see as God’s role in our security efforts?
    2. What does the Bible say we need to do for God’s blessing?
    3. How would you apply the principles of these verses in your workplace?
  1. Your paper should be at least 350 words in length.

Cryptographic Methods

Cryptographic Methods

Original Post by Catherine Johnson

Cryptographic Methods:

Cryptography is the science of concealing information or encrypting information. Computers use complex cryptographic algorithms to enable data protection, data hiding, integrity checks, nonrepudiation services, policy enforcement, key management, and exchange, and many more (Conklin, 2018). Cryptography is classified into three types symmetric cryptography, asymmetric cryptography, and hash functions

Symmetric cryptography is also known as secret-key cryptography. It uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt data making it the simplest type of cryptography. A plain text with the key produces the same cipher similarly, the ciphertext with the key produces the plain text. “Symmetric encryption is useful for protecting data between parties with an established shared key and is also frequently used to store confidential data” (Burnett & Foster, 2004). This type of cryptography is suited for bulk encryption as it is fast and easy.

Asymmetric cryptography is also known as public-key cryptography. In this method, two keys are used to encrypt data. One for encoding and the other for decoding. One of the two keys stays private while the other is shared. The algorithms are based on integer factorization and discrete logarithmic problems. This encryption method is used for authentication and confidentiality.

The hash function is a special mathematical function. It performs a one-way function, which means that once the algorithm is processed, there is no feasible way to use the ciphertext to retrieve the plaintext that was used to generate it (Conklin, 2018). Hashes provide confidentiality but not integrity because even though we cannot determine the original text, we can ascertain the modified text. These are utilized in programs, text messages, and operating systems files.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI):

It is an infrastructure that enables users to communicate securely. PKI uses the asymmetric method; one private key and one public key. The public key can only decrypt the file encrypted by the private key, which affirms the receiver and the sender’s information is secure during a transaction. The challenges PKI face is the storage and protection of the keys. The encryption keys can be stolen or unrecoverable based on the measures taken to store them. Additionally, failure to issue and renew certificates can cause large-scale connectivity issues.

Physical Security:

Physical security needs to be maintained to prevent attackers from gaining access to steal data. Physical security is essential in an organization to prevent unauthorized individuals from causing harm to the business. If systems and devices are physically accessed, all files, data, information, and networks can be compromised. Granting limited access to employees to computer rooms or server rooms can prevent theft and help with intentional and unintentional damages. Perimeter security is also important, especially for sites and server access. Furthermore, device management is crucial as well because stolen devices can cause data breaches. Organizations should implement endpoint security management to access devices outside the company’s network and keep them safe.


Conklin, Wm., A. et al. Principles of computer security: CompTIA security and beyond, fifth edition. Available from: Slingshot eReader, (5th Edition). McGraw-Hill Professional, 2018.

Burnett. M, Foster. J. C. 2004. Hacking the code ASP.Net web application security.

Original Post from Ayesha Syeda

They cannot protect everything against every threat. However, as we continue to expand our definition of threat, we can identify more threat types and better evaluate their impact on a business, including all the factors that go into designing a technological solution. When we apply technology to create new ideas, we can call the resulting new product or service a threat since it is something that increases the cost of doing business or causes competitors to re-evaluate where they are in the competitive hierarchy. For a company to be classified as a threat, it must: Have created, in some form or fashion, a product or service that has a market share of more than 30% and Have had a significant technological change that increases the cost of doing business by more than 20%. The threat must be significant enough to create a market opportunity for the company. The danger is that the threat increases the pressure on the organization to act quickly because, in the meantime, the company is in a quandary because of the risk that the information might be used against them by competitors, as one example, or the information might damage a competitor’s reputation. A solution can be to develop a system that will send alerts when there is a change in the information. This might require information systems that allow the users to track changes in the data. The company should have administrative, training, and educational staff to maintain control. As a company expands across national markets, the number of people in the country that need to be trained to serve the foreign market should be relatively small. In such cases, it is common to have multiple people who perform different tasks so that one specialist may need to be trained in one country and another in another.

Cryptographic weaknesses might be related to different classes of weaknesses, including the weaknesses in software design, the vulnerabilities of hardware, the weaknesses in communication and security networks, and others. Different cryptosystems can address two main types of weaknesses. A weakness in software design can be addressed by a software implementation that implements a robust design and provides several security features. For example, the device has a fingerprint scanner that can identify the person entering and leaving the hotel and stores the hotel guest’s name, phone number, and email address. Furthermore, the hotel provides a free Wi-Fi password if someone uses one of the hotel’s mobile phones in the hotel premises without permission. The hotel provides a service to guests to remotely connect their mobile phones to their Wi-Fi network. If a guest does not have the required device, they can connect their mobile phone to this application and use this data to charge their card. Once charged, the device is sent to the guest’s mobile phone. The mobile phone then connects to the charging station and allows the guest to use this card to continue their journey. There is no additional charge when using a mobile phone as a payment terminal.

The key for PKI is the identification of valid and invalid transactions within the transactions. We define valid as “anyone transaction that meets the following conditions”: The transaction inputs are valid. The transaction outputs are valid. The inputs are included in one of the inputs and are not modified. The outputs are included in one of the outputs and are not modified. We use three examples for validation. We consider a peer-to-peer instant messaging protocol as an example. The basic idea is the simple one. It allows anyone in the world to send an encrypted message in real-time. This means that no one will be able to read anything until the message is received by a third party and is decrypted. This is what makes instant messaging worthwhile. However, the messages contained within them are compassionate and easy to track. It also means that the sender of the secret message has access to it forever (Cambou et al., 2019). In addition to this, the sender also needs to be aware of the recipient’s location. If the recipient is in the same room as him/her, it is more challenging to get secure communication, and hence it is best to encrypt this session. For instance, senders can encrypt their messages only with the cipher AES or RSA, which means they cannot decrypt them by brute force. If this is the case, the sender needs to change the recipient’s destination or choose a different cipher and thus create a new session.

An excellent place to start is by examining their organization’s physical control procedures. These controls can be implemented via the training of key personnel, written policies, rules, or management processes. The security management team needs to know how to assess the security of the organization’s information systems to ensure that they are capable of maintaining and restoring data that is lost or stolen, as well as the availability of data and information to allow the success of business operations. This requires an understanding of technology, security, and digital transformation in the digital era. At ICAP, the security team is constantly challenged with deciding what new information technology applications to add to the existing inventory management system. The most obvious potential application would be in the handling of customer information. It is known that the use of an ERP system can provide more excellent information quality and lower inventory levels. However, integrating electronic and physical data within the same data warehouse can make the system more complex. However, as the number of physical elements in an electronic database increase, it is easier for IT to integrate data into the system. IT can also benefit from developing processes for storing and analyzing structured information. This analysis is often undertaken using software applications, such as structured reporting or text mining.


Cambou, B., Philabaum, C., Booher, D., & Telesca, D. A. (2019, March). Response-based cryptographic methods with ternary physical unclonable functions. In Future of Information and Communication Conference (pp. 781-800). Springer, Cham.


Read and respond in at least 200 words to at least two of your classmates’ postings, as well as any follow-up instructor questions directed at you, by the end of the workshop. Include citations to at least one credible information source in your replies.

Shays’ Rebellion

Shays’ Rebellion

Experiencing the United States: Shays’ Rebellion (50 points)
About the assignment:
1. Throughout the semester, there will be supplemental activities and discussions about the weekly subject matter. This week you will have the opportunity to explore Shays’ Rebellion.
2. For this assignment, you will view a website that is devoted to Shays’ Rebellion.
3. This assignment uses Turnitin. Once this assignment is graded, the grade stands.
4. Do not use any outside sources.
The web source:
Link for the source: to an external site.
1. In your own words, begin with a description of the Shays’ Rebellion web page (10 points). This should be a minimum of four sentences.
2. From one of the four topics below (see the icon links on the page), choose a photo or an artifact/photo from the exhibit and write a description about the topic, and include the name of your selected topic (15 points).
2. a. The photo/topic must be included along with the topic/photo link. (10 points) For some topics/photos, there may be two links, one for the photo and one for the page link.
3. Next, tell me what you found interesting about the topic you chose. This should be a minimum of five sentences. (15 points)
4. Number each of the answers (1-3). -2 points for not numbering the answers.
The four topics: Choose only from (these are the four of the seven icons on the page)
Historic Scenes
Artifacts and Documents
Do not choose one of these for your topic: Themes and Essays, Songs and Music, or Timeline
1. -2 points if you don’t number your answers
2. Syntax and spelling errors. Capitalize proper nouns. When in doubt if a word is capitalized, ask “the” Google.
3. Selecting one of the “do not choose” topics (-25 points).
Late Submission:
If for some reason you can’t take this quiz by the Sunday due date, you may have until Wednesday at 11:59 pm. For each day late, there is a three-point late deduction, and this includes if you submit a few minutes after the Sunday due date time.
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US health care system

U.S. health care system

describe the impact of recent U.S. health care reform legislation.

Step 1:

Pulling from all that you have learned in this and earlier lessons, consider what an ideal U.S. health care system might look like

If you were designing a new system:

  • What elements of the current system would you keep and why?
  • What elements would you change and why?
  • How would health care be paid for?
  • What innovative ideas can you envision?

Biosocial Theories

Biosocial Theories

Identify and briefly define the core definition and major concepts of Herbert Blumer’s symbolic interactionism.


Identify and briefly define the three types of biosocial theories.

Identify and briefly define each of the first two paradigms in contemporary sociological theory (positivism and interpretive) in terms of their view of the nature of the social world and their model of theory.

Identify and briefly define the core definition and major concepts of Erving Goffman’s dramaturgical theory.

Identify and briefly define the primary criticisms of symbolic interaction.

Federal Insurance

Federal Insurance Contribution Act

Federal and state taxes are not the only items withheld from Green Branch Coffee employees’ paychecks. There are other items, such as benefits, the Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA), the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), and Social Security.

Note: respond to the following questions:

  • What role does Social Security play in employee retirement?
  • What is the relationship between FICA, ERISA, and Social Security? Include an example of fiduciary responsibility under ERISA.
  • Describe an example of a retirement planning program that could be implemented for Green Branch Coffee’s employees.